Thursday, July 28, 2011

Dolman Found in Illinois Burial Mound Along With Neanderthal Type Skulls

Dolman Found in Illinois Burial Mound Along With Neanderthal Type Skulls
Further south from Sinnissippi mounds in Illinois was this archaic type skull that was also removed from a burial mound in Louisiana.  
For the complete story of this ancient archaic race found in burial mounds
"History of Whiteside County, Illinois," 1877,  
Investigation of the Sinnissippi Mounds 
"...In May, 1877, Mr. Holbrook examined a number of mounds above the Catholic cemetery, in the vicinity of Sterling, one of which was a large mound, one of a number in a row parallel with the river. On moving the clay it was found that this mound contained a Dolmen built of flat pieces of fossiliferous limestone. The stones used were quite large.
                                                                                      Dolman
The wall was a right angled parallelogram, twelve feet long and five wide, the foundation laid upon clay, the wall built in an artistic manner, no cement having been used. The inner surface was smooth and even, although the stones were unhewn. The inside of the Dolmen revealed fragments of eight skeletons, the bones badly decomposed. Apparently the bodies were cast into the sepulcher promiscuously. The skulls found indicated that this people were acquainted with the division of surgery known as "trepanning" -- i.e., removing portions of the bones of the skull, or portions of other bones. A thigh bone that had been fractured was found replaced and united in a manner that would do honor to a surgeon of the present day. With the skulls were found a plummet, fossils which are not found in this locality, finely black polished pebbles, and a number of large teeth. In another mound was found an altar of burned rock, oval in shape, long diameter six feet, short diameter four and a half feet. The altar was of fossiliferous limestone. Over the mounds were found a vegetable growth of from one to ten feet and a decayed stump of a hickory tree, about twelve inches in diameter. On and about the altars were usually found charcoal and charred remains of human beings; also evidence of great and continued heat. At Sterling the indications are that the body was placed upon the clay, covered with black loam and a great fire built over the whole. After the fire the mound was raised. This is indicated by the thick strata of charcoal and ashes found. As a rule the remains unearthed furnish unsatisfactory evidence. Great numbers of perfect molar teeth are exhumed, thus certifying that pre historic man was unacquainted with the pangs of the toothache. In the Sterling mounds were found stone scrapers, but very rude in design and execution. Fragments of pottery were found, also implements made from the antlers of the elk and deer. At Sterling is a work that many judges pronounce a fortress. The two embankments are parallel, four rods apart, direction east and west. The south embankment has two gateways. The north embankment is sixteen rods long and has two gateways. The construction indicates knowledge of the cardinal points of the compass. This people evidently had a practical acquaintance with astronomy, as the North Star appears to have been a governing point with them.
"The Mound Builders wore cloth, and dressed the hides of animals, carved rude ornaments and engraved characters upon stone; ate food from earthen dishes, and worshiped at altars erected upon high hills and in low valleys. There is abundant reason for believing that human sacrifice was common with them. Trepanned skulls are frequently met with on opening mounds, evidence being presented that the operation was made prior to death. The superstition of the Mound Builders seems analogous to that of the South Sea Islanders and tribes of savages of the present day who trepan for vertigo, neuralgia, etc., believing that these complaints are demons in the head that should be let out. Metal was worked in an imperfect manner by the people. Galena was a prominent ornament. Mr. J. M. Williamson, of Ustick, says these charms are found in the northwestern part of the county. Copper was apparently the king of metals among the Mound Builders. Anatomically considered the Mound Builders were no larger nor stronger than the men of the present day. Their skulls differ widely from the Indian or Caucasian and have been thus described: "The frontal bone recedes backwards from a prominent supercilliary ridge, leaving no forehead, or rather the eye looks out from under the frontal plate, very similar to a turtle shell, and no more elevated." Their jaws were protruding, prominent and wide. The evidence is that the Mound Builders were a half civilized agricultural people, prominently differing from the Indians in manner of burial and habits of life..."