Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms and the Bible



First Memory of things in Europe to
the Conquest of 
Persia by Alexander
the great.
The Times are set down in years before Christ.
The Canaanites who fled from Joshua, retired in great numbers into Egypt, and there conquered TimausThamus, or Thammuz King of the lower Egypt, and reigned there under their Kings SalatisBœonApachnasApophisJaniasAssis, &c. untill the days of Eli and Samuel. They fed on flesh, and sacrificed men after the manner of thePhœnicians, and were called Shepherds by the Egyptians, who lived only on the fruits of the earth, and abominated flesh-eaters. The upper parts of Egypt were in those days under many Kings, Reigning at CoptosThebesThisElephantis, and other Places, which by conquering one another grew by degrees into one Kingdom, over whichMisphragmuthosis Reigned in the days of Eli.
In the year before Christ 1125 Mephres Reigned over the upper Egypt from Syene to Heliopolis, and his Successor Misphragmuthosis made a lasting war upon the Shepherds soon after, and caused many of them to fly into PalestineIdumæaSyria, and Libya; and under LelexÆzeusInachusPelasgusÆolus the first, Cecrops, and other Captains, into Greece. Before those days Greece and all Europe was peopled by wandring Cimmerians, and Scythians from the backside of the Euxine Sea, who lived a rambling wild sort of life, like the Tartars in the northern parts of Asia. Of their Race was Ogyges, in whose days these Egyptian strangers came into Greece. The rest of the Shepherds were shut up by Misphragmuthosis, in a part of the lower Egypt called Abaris or Pelusium.
In the year 1100 the Philistims, strengthned by the access of the Shepherds, conquer Israel, and take the Ark. Samuel judges Israel.
1085. Hæmon the son of Pelasgus Reigns in Thessaly.
1080. Lycaon the son of Pelasgus builds LycosuraPhoroneus the son of InachusPhoronicum, afterwards called ArgosÆgialeus the brother of Phoroneus and son ofInachusÆgialeum, afterwards called Sicyon: and these were the oldest towns in Peloponnesus. 'Till then they built only single houses scattered up and down in the fields. About the same time Cecrops built Cecropia in Attica, afterwards called Athens; and Eleusine, the son of Ogyges, built Eleusis. And these towns gave a beginning to the Kingdoms of the ArcadiansArgivesSicyonsAtheniansEleusinians, &c. Deucalion flourishes.
1070. Amosis, or Tethmosis, the successor of Misphragmuthosis, abolishes the Phœnician custom in Heliopolis of sacrificing men, and drives the Shepherds out of Abaris. By their access the Philistims become so numerous, as to bring into the field against Saul 30000 chariots, 6000 horsemen, and people as the sand on the sea shore for multitude.Abas, the father of Acrisius and Prœtus, comes from Egypt.
1069. Saul is made King of Israel, and by the hand of Jonathan gets a great victory over the PhilistimsEurotas the son of Lelex, and Lacedæmon who married Sparta the daughter of Eurotas, Reign in Laconia, and build Sparta.
1060. Samuel dies.
1059. David made King.
1048. The Edomites are conquered and dispersed by David, and some of them fly into Egypt with their young King Hadad. Others fly to the Persian Gulph with their Commander Oannes; and others from the Red Sea to the coast of the Mediterranean, and fortify Azoth against David, and take Zidon; and the Zidonians who fled from them build Tyre and Aradus, and make Abibalus King of Tyre. These Edomites carry to all places their Arts and Sciences; amongst which were their Navigation, Astronomy, and Letters; for in Idumæa they had Constellations and Letters before the days of Job, who mentions them: and there Moses learnt to write the Law in a book. These Edomites who fled to the Mediterranean, translating the word Erythræa into that of Phœnicia, give the name of Phœnicians to themselves, and that of Phœnicia to all the sea-coasts ofPalestine from Azoth to Zidon. And hence came the tradition of the Persians, and of the Phœnicians themselves, mentioned by Herodotus, that the Phœnicians came originally from the Red Sea, and presently undertook long voyages on the Mediterranean.
1047. Acrisius marries Eurydice, the daughter of Lacedæmon and Sparta. The Phœnician mariners who fled from the Red Sea, being used to long voyages for the sake of traffic, begin the like voyages on the Mediterranean from Zidon; and sailing as far as Greece, carry away Io the daughter of Inachus, who with other Grecian women came to their ships to buy their merchandize. The Greek Seas begin to be infested with Pyrates.
1046. The Syrians of Zobah and Damascus are conquered by DavidNyctimus, the son of Lycaon, reigns in ArcadiaDeucalion still alive.
1045. Many of the Phœnicians and Syrians fleeing from Zidon and from David, come under the conduct of CadmusCilixPhœnixMembliariusNycteusThasusAtymnus, and other Captains, into Asia minorCreteGreece, and Libya; and introduce Letters, Music, Poetry, the Octaeteris, Metals and their Fabrication, and other Arts, Sciences and Customs of the Phœnicians. At this time Cranaus the successor of Cecrops Reigned in Attica, and in his Reign and the beginning of the Reign of Nyctimus, the Greeks place the flood of Deucalion. This flood was succeeded by four Ages or Generations of men, in the first of which Chiron the son of Saturn and Philyra was born, and the last of which according to Hesiod ended with the Trojan War; and so places the Destruction of Troy four Generations or about 140 years later than that flood, and the coming of Cadmus, reckoning with the ancients three Generations to an hundred years. With these Phœnicians came a sort of men skilled in the Religious Mysteries, Arts, and Sciences of Phœnicia, and settled in several places under the names of CuretesCorybantesTelchines, and Idæi Dactyli.
1043. Hellen, the son of Deucalion, and father of ÆolusXuthus, and Dorus, flourishes.
1035. Erectheus Reigns in AtticaÆthlius, the grandson of Deucalion and father of Endymion, builds Elis. The Idæi Dactyli find out Iron in mount Ida in Crete, and work it into armour and iron tools, and thereby give a beginning to the trades of smiths and armourers in Europe; and by singing and dancing in their armour, and keeping time by striking upon one another's armour with their swords, they bring in Music and Poetry; and at the same time they nurse up the Cretan Jupiter in a cave of the same mountain, dancing about him in their armour.
1034. Ammon Reigns in Egypt. He conquered Libya, and reduced that people from a wandering savage life to a civil one, and taught them to lay up the fruits of the earth; and from him Libya and the desert above it were anciently called Ammonia. He was the first that built long and tall ships with sails, and had a fleet of such ships on the Red Sea, and another on the Mediterranean at Irasa in Libya. 'Till then they used small and round vessels of burden, invented on the Red Sea, and kept within sight of the shore. For enabling them to cross the seas without seeing the shore, the Egyptians began in his days to observe the Stars: and from this beginning Astronomy and Sailing had their rise. Hitherto the Lunisolar year had been in use: but this year being of an uncertain length, and so, unfit for Astronomy, in his days and in the days of his sons and grandsons, by observing the Heliacal Risings and Setting of the Stars, they found the length of the Solar year, and made it consist of five days more than the twelve calendar months of the old Lunisolar year. Creusa the daughter of Erechtheus marries Xuthus the son of HellenErechtheus having first celebrated the Panathenæa joins horses to a chariot. Ægina, the daughter of Asopus, and mother of Æacus, born.
1030. Ceres a woman of Sicily, in seeking her daughter who was stolen, comes into Attica, and there teaches the Greeks to sow corn; for which Benefaction she was Deified after death. She first taught the Art to Triptolemus the young son of Celeus King of Eleusis.
1028. Oenotrus the youngest son of Lycaon, the Janus of the Latines, led the first Colony of Greeks into Italy, and there taught them to build houses. Perseus born.
1020. Arcas, the son of Callisto and grandson of Lycaon, and Eumelus the first King of Achaia, receive bread-corn from Triptolemus.
1019. Solomon Reigns, and marries the daughter of Ammon, and by means of this affinity is supplied with horses from Egypt; and his merchants also bring horses from thence for all the Kings of the Hittites and Syrians: for horses came originally from Libya; and thence Neptune was called EquestrisTantalus King of Phrygia steals Ganimede the son ofTros King of Troas.
1017. Solomon by the assistance of the Tyrians and Aradians, who had mariners among them acquainted with the Red Sea, sets out a fleet upon that sea. Those assistants build new cities in the Persian Gulph, called Tyre and Aradus.
1015. The Temple of Solomon is founded. Minos Reigns in Crete expelling his father Asterius, who flees into Italy, and becomes the Saturn of the LatinesAmmon takes Gezerfrom the Canaanites, and gives it to his daughter, Solomon's wife.
1014. Ammon places Cepheus at Joppa.
1010. Sesac in the Reign of his father Ammon invades Arabia Fœlix, and sets up pillars at the mouth of the Red SeaApisEpaphus or Epopeus, the son of Phroroneus, andNycteus King of Bœotia, slain. Lycus inherits the Kingdom of his brother NycteusÆtolus the son of Endymion flies into the Country of the Curetes in Achaia, and calls itÆtolia; and of Pronoe the daughter of Phorbas begets Pleuron and Calydon, who built cities in Ætolia called by their own names. Antiopa the daughter of Nycteus is sent home to Lycus by Lamedon the successor of Apis, and in the way brings forth Amphion and Zethus.
1008. Sesac, in the Reign of his father Ammon, invades Afric and Spain, and sets up pillars in all his conquests, and particularly at the mouth of the Mediterranean, and returns home by the coast of Gaul and Italy.
1007. Ceres being dead Eumolpus institutes her Mysteries in Eleusine. The Mysteries of Rhea are instituted in Phrygia, in the city Cybele. About this time Temples begin to be built in GreeceHyagnis the Phrygian invents the pipe. After the example of the common-council of the five Lords of the Philistims, the Greeks set up the Amphictyonic Council, first at Thermopylæ, by the influence of Amphictyon the son of Deucalion; and a few years after at Delphi by the influence of Acrisius. Among the cites, whose deputies met atThermopylæ, I do not find Athens, and therefore doubt whether Amphictyon was King of that city. If he was the son of Deucalion and brother of Hellen, he and Cranaus might Reign together in several parts of Attica. But I meet with a later Amphictyon who entertained the great Bacchus. This Council worshipped Ceres, and therefore was instituted after her death.
1006. Minos prepares a fleet, clears the Greek seas of Pyrates, and sends Colonies to the Islands of the Greeks, some of which were not inhabited before. Cecrops II. Reigns inAtticaCaucon teaches the Mysteries of Ceres in Messene.
1005. Andromeda carried away from Joppa by PerseusPandion the brother of Cecrops II. Reigns in AtticaCar, the son of Phoroneus, builds a Temple to Ceres.
1002. Sesac Reigns in Egypt and adorns Thebes, dedicating it to his father Ammon by the name of No-Ammon or Ammon-No, that is the people or city of Ammon: whence theGreeks called it Diospolis, the city of JupiterSesac also erected Temples and Oracles to his father in ThebesAmmonia, and Ethiopia, and thereby caused his father to be worshipped as a God in those countries, and I think also in Arabia Fœlix: and this was the original of the worship of Jupiter Ammon, and the first mention of Oracles that I meet with in Prophane History. War between Pandion and Labdacus the grandson of Cadmus.
994. Ægeus Reigns in Attica.
993. Pelops the son of Tantalus comes into Peloponnesus, marries Hippodamia the granddaughter of Acrisius, takes Ætolia from Ætolus the son of Endymion, and by his riches grows potent.
990. Amphion and Zethus slay Lycus, put Laius the son of Labdacus to flight, and Reign in Thebes, and wall the city about.
989. Dædalus and his nephew Talus invent the saw, the turning-lath, the wimble, the chip-ax, and other instruments of Carpenters and Joyners, and thereby give a beginning to those Arts in EuropeDædalus also invented the making of Statues with their feet asunder, as if they walked.
988. Minos makes war upon the Athenians, for killing his son AndrogeusÆacus flourishes.
987. Dædalus kills his nephew Talus, and flies to Minos. A Priestess of Jupiter Ammon, being brought by Phœnician merchants into Greece, sets up the Oracle of Jupiter atDodona. This gives a beginning to Oracles in Greece: and by their dictates, the Worship of the Dead is every where introduced.
983. Sisyphus, the son of Æolus and grandson of Hellen, Reigns in Corinth, and some say that he built that city.
980. Laius recovers the Kingdom of ThebesAthamas, the brother of Sisyphus and father of Phrixus and Helle, marries Ino the daughter of Cadmus.
979. Rehoboam Reigns. Thoas is sent from Crete to Lemnos, Reigns there in the city Hephœstia, and works in copper and iron.
978. Alcmena born of Electryo the son of Perseus and Andromeda, and of Lysidice the daughter of Pelops.
974. Sesac spoils the Temple, and invades Syria and Persia, setting up pillars in many places. Jeroboam, becoming subject to Sesac, sets up the worship of the Egyptian Gods inIsrael.
971. Sesac invades India, and returns with triumph the next year but one: whence Trieterica Bacchi. He sets up pillars on two mountains at the mouth of the river Ganges.
968. Theseus Reigns, having overcome the Minotaur, and soon after unites the twelve cities of Attica under one government. Sesac, having carried on his victories to Mount Caucasus, leaves his nephew Prometheus there, and Æetes in Colchis.
967. Sesac, passing over the Hellespont conquers Thrace, kills Lycurgus King thereof, and gives his Kingdom and one of his singing-women to Oeagrus the father of Orpheus.Sesac had in his army Ethiopians commanded by Pan, and Libyan women commanded by Myrina or Minerva. It was the custom of the Ethiopians to dance when they were entring into a battel, and from their skipping they were painted with goats feet in the form of Satyrs.
966. Thoas, being made King of Cyprus by Sesac, goes thither with his wife Calycopis, and leaves his daughter Hypsipyle in Lemnos.
965. Sesac is baffled by the Greeks and Scythians, loses many of his women with their Queen Minerva, composes the war, is received by Amphiction at a feast, buries Ariadne, goes back through Asia and Syria into Egypt, with innumerable captives, among whom was Tithonus, the son of Laomedon King of Troy; and leaves his Libyan Amazons, underMarthesia and Lampeto, the successors of Minerva, at the river Thermodon. He left also in Colchos Geographical Tables of all his conquests: And thence Geography had its rise. His singing-women were celebrated in Thrace by the name of the Muses. And the daughters of Pierus a Thracian, imitating them, were celebrated by the same name.
964. Minos, making war upon Cocalus King of Sicily, is slain by him. He was eminent for his Dominion, his Laws and his Justice: upon his sepulchre visited by Pythagoras, was this inscription, ΤΟΥ ΔΙΟΣ the Sepulchre of JupiterDanaus with his daughters flying from his brother Egyptus (that is from Sesac) comes into GreeceSesac using the advice of his Secretary Thoth, distributes Egypt into xxxvi Nomes, and in every Nome erects a Temple, and appoints the several Gods, Festivals and Religions of the several Nomes. The Temples were the sepulchres of his great men, where they were to be buried and worshipped after death, each in his own Temple, with ceremonies and festivals appointed by him; while He and his Queen, by the names of Osiris and Isis, were to be worshipped in all Egypt. These were the Temples seen and described by Lucian eleven hundred years after, to be of one and the same age: and this was the original of the several Nomes of Egypt, and of the several Gods and several Religions of those NomesSesac divided also the land of Egypt by measure amongst his soldiers, and thence Geometry had its rise. Hercules and Eurystheus born.
963. Amphictyon brings the twelve Gods of Egypt into Greece, and these are the Dii magni majorum gentium, to whom the Earth and Planets and Elements are dedicated.
962. Phryxus and Helle fly from their stepmother Ino the daughter of CadmusHelle is drowned in the Hellespont, so named from her, but Phryxus arrived at Colchos.
960. The war between the Lapithæ and the people of Thessaly called Centaurs.
958. Oedipus kills his father LaiusSthenelus the son of Perseus Reigns in Mycene.
956. Sesac is slain by his brother Japetus, who after death was deified in Afric by the name of Neptune, and called Typhon by the EgyptiansOrus Reigns and routs the Libyans, who under the conduct of Japetus, and his Son Antæus or Atlas, invaded EgyptSesac from his making the river Nile useful, by cutting channels from it to all the cities of Egypt, was called by its names, Sihor or SirisNilus and Egyptus. The Greeks hearing the Egyptians lament, O Siris and Bou Siris, called him Osiris and Busiris. The Arabians from his great acts called him Bacchus, that is, the Great. The Phrygians called him Ma-fors or Mavors, the valiant, and by contraction Mars. Because he set up pillars in all his conquests, and his army in his father's Reign fought against the Africans with clubs, he is painted with pillars and a club: and this is that Hercules who, according to Cicero, was born upon theNile, and according to Eudoxus, was slain by Typhon; and according to Diodorus, was an Egyptian, and went over a great part of the world, and set up the pillars in Afric. He seems to be also the Belus who, according to Diodorus, led a Colony of Egyptians to Babylon, and there instituted Priests called Chaldeans, who were free from taxes, and observed the stars, as in Egypt. Hitherto Judah and Israel laboured under great vexations, but henceforward Asa King of Judah had peace ten years.
947. The Ethiopians invade Egypt, and drown Orus in the Nile. Thereupon Bubaste the sister of Orus kills herself, by falling from the top of an house, and their mother Isis orAstræa goes mad: and thus ended the Reign of the Gods of Egypt.
946. Zerah the Ethiopian is overthrown by Asa. The people of the lower Egypt make Osarsiphus their King, and call in two hundred thousand Jews and Phœnicians against theEthiopiansMenes or Amenophis the young son of Zerah and Cissia Reigns.
944. The Ethiopians, under Amenophis, retire from the lower Egypt and fortify Memphis against Osarsiphus. And by these wars and the Argonautic expedition, the great Empire of Egypt breaks in pieces. Eurystheus the son of Sthenelus Reigns in Mycenæ.
943. Evander and his mother Carmenta carry Letters into Italy.
942. Orpheus Deifies the son of Semele by the name of Bacchus, and appoints his Ceremonies.
940. The great men of Greece, hearing of the civil wars and distractions of Egypt, resolve to send an embassy to the nations, upon the Euxine and Mediterranean Seas, subject to that Empire, and for that end order the building of the ship Argo.
939. The ship Argo is built after the pattern of the long ship in which Danaus came into Greece: and this was the first long ship built by the GreeksChiron, who was born in the Golden Age, forms the Constellations for the use of the Argonauts; and places the Solstitial and Equinoctial Points in the fifteenth degrees or middles of the Constellations ofCancerChelæCapricorn, and AriesMeton in the year of Nabonassar 316, observed the Summer Solstice in the eighth degree of Cancer, and therefore the Solstice had then gone back seven degrees. It goes back one degree in about seventytwo years, and seven degrees in about 504 years. Count these years back from the year of Nabonassar 316, and they will place the Argonautic expedition about 936 years before ChristGingris the son of Thoas slain, and Deified by the name of Adonis.
938. Theseus, being fifty years old, steals Helena then seven years old. Pirithous the son of Ixion, endeavouring to steal Persephone the daughter of Orcus King of theMolossians, is slain by the Dog of Orcus; and his companion Theseus is taken and imprisoned. Helena is set at liberty by her brothers.
937. The Argonautic expedition. Prometheus leaves Mount Caucasus, being set at liberty by HerculesLaomedon King of Troy is slain by HerculesPriam succeeds him.Talus a brazen man, of the Brazen Age, the son of Minos, is slain by the ArgonautsÆsculapius and Hercules were Argonauts, and Hippocrates was the eighteenth fromÆsculapius by the father's side, and the nineteenth from Hercules by the mother's side; and because these generations, being noted in history, were most probably by the chief of the family, and for the most part by the eldest sons; we may reckon 28 or at the most 30 years to a generation: and thus the seventeen intervals by the father's side and eighteen by the mother's, will at a middle reckoning amount unto about 507 years; which being counted backwards from the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, at which time Hippocratesbegan to flourish, will reach up to the time where we have placed the Argonautic expedition.
936. Theseus is set at liberty by Hercules.
934. The hunting of the Calydonian boar slain by Meleager.
930. Amenophis, with an army out of Ethiopia and Thebais, invades the lower Egypt, conquers Osarsiphus, and drives out the Jews and Canaanites: and this is reckoned the second expulsion of the Shepherds. Calycopis dies, and is Deified by Thoas with Temples at Paphos and Amathus in Cyprus, and at Byblus in Syria, and with Priests and sacred Rites, and becomes the Venus of the ancients, and the Dea Cypria and Dea Syria. And from these and other places where Temples were erected to her, she was also calledPaphiaAmathusiaBybliaCythereaSalaminiaCnidiaErycinaIdalia, &c. And her three waiting-women became the three Graces.
928. The war of the seven Captains against Thebes.
927. Hercules and Æsculapius are Deified. Eurystheus drives the Heraclides out of Peloponnesus. He is slain by Hyllus the son of HerculesAtreus the son of Pelops succeeds him in the Kingdom of MycenæMenestheus, the great grandson of Erechtheus, Reigns at Athens.
925. Theseus is slain, being cast down from a rock.
924. Hyllus invading Peloponnesus is slain by Echemus.
919. Atreus dies. Agamemnon Reigns. In the absence of Menelaus, who went to look after what his father Atreus had left to him, Paris steals Helena.
918. The second war against Thebes.
912. Thoas, King of Cyprus and part of Phœnicia dies; and for making armour for the Kings of Egypt; is Deified with a sumptuous Temple at Memphis by the name of Baal CanaanVulcan. This Temple was said to be built by Menes, the first King of Egypt who reigned next after the Gods, that is, by Menoph or Amenophis who reigned next after the death of OsirisIsisOrusBubaste and Thoth. The city, Memphis was also said to be built by Menes; he began to build it when he fortified it against Osarsiphus. And from him it was called MenophMophNoph, &c; and is to this day called Menuf by the Arabians. And therefore Menes who built the city and temple Was Menoph or Amenophis. The Priests of Egypt at length made this temple above a thousand years older then Amenophis, and some of them five or ten thousand years older: but it could not be above two or three hundred years older than the Reign of Psammiticus who finished it, and died 614 years before Christ. When Menoph or Menes built the city, he built a bridge there over theNile: a work too great to be older than the Monarchy of Egypt.
909. Amenophis, called Memnon by the Greeks, built the Memnonia at Susa, whilst Egypt was under the government of Proteus his Viceroy.
904. Troy takenAmenophis was still at Susa; the Greeks feigning that he came from thence to the Trojan war.
903. Demophoon, the son of Theseus by Phœdra the daughter of Minos, Reigns at Athens.
901. Amenophis builds small Pyramids in Cochome.
896. Ulysses leaves Calypso in the Island Ogygie (perhaps Cadis or Cales.) She was the daughter of Atlas, according to Homer. The ancients at length feigned that this Island, (which from Atlas they called Atlantis) had been as big as all EuropeAfrica and Asia, but was sunk into the Sea.
895. Teucer builds Salamis in CyprusHadad or Benhadad King of Syria dies, and is Deified at Damascus with a Temple and Ceremonies.
887. Amenophis dies, and is succeeded by his son Ramesses or Rhampsinitus, who builds the western Portico of the Temple of Vulcan. The Egyptians dedicated to OsirisIsis,Orus senior, Typhon, and Nephthe the sister and wife of Typhon, the five days added by the Egyptians to the twelve Calendar months of the old Luni-solar year, and said that they were added when these five Princes were born. They were therefore added in the Reign of Ammon the father of these five Princes: but this year was scarce brought into common use before the Reign of Amenophis: for in his Temple or Sepulchre at Abydus, they placed a Circle of 365 cubits in compass, covered on the upper side with a plate of gold, and divided into 365 equal parts, to represent all the days of the year; every part having the day of the year, and the Heliacal Risings and Settings of the Stars on that day, noted upon it. And this Circle remained there 'till Cambyses spoiled the temples of Egypt: and from this monument I collect that it was Amenophis who established this year, fixing the beginning thereof to one of the four Cardinal Points of the heavens. For had not the beginning thereof been now fixed, the Heliacal Risings and Settings of the Stars could not have been noted upon the days thereof. The Priests of Egypt therefore in the Reign of Amenophis continued to observe the Heliacal Risings and Settings of the Stars upon every day. And when by the Sun's Meridional Altitudes they had found the Solstices and Equinoxes according to the Sun's mean motion, his Equation being not yet known, they fixed the beginning of this year to the Vernal Equinox, and in memory thereof erected this monument. Now this year being carried into Chaldæa, the Chaldæans began their year of  Nabonassar on the same Thoth with the Egyptians, and made it of the same length. And the Thoth of the first year of Nabonassar fell upon the 26th day of February: which was 33 days and five hours before the Vernal Equinox, according to the Sun's mean motion. And the Thoth of this year moves backwards 33 days and five hours in 137 years, and therefore fell upon the Vernal Equinox 137 years before the Æra of Nabonassar began; that is, 884 years before Christ. And if it began upon the day next after the Vernal Equinox, it might begin three or four years earlier; and there we may place the death of this King. The Greeks feigned that he was the Son of Tithonus, and therefore he was born after the return of Sesac into Egypt, with Tithonus and other captives, and so might be about 70 or 75 years old at his death.
883. Dido builds Carthage, and the Phœnicians begin presently after to sail as far as to the Straights Mouth, and beyond. Æneas was still alive, according to Virgil.
870. Hesiod flourishes. He hath told us himself that he lived in the age next after the wars of Thebes and Troy, and that this age should end when the men then living grew hoary and dropt into the grave; and therefore it was but of an ordinary length: and Herodotus has told us that Hesiod and Homer were but 400 years older than himself. Whence it follows that the destruction of Troy was not older than we have represented it.
860. Mœris Reigns in Egypt. He adorned Memphis, and translated the seat of his Empire thither from Thebes. There he built the famous Labyrinth, and the northern portico of the Temple of Vulcan, and dug the great Lake called the Lake of Mœris, and upon the bottom of it built two great Pyramids of brick: and these things being not mentioned by Homeror Hesiod, were unknown to them, and done after their days. Mœris wrote also a book of Geometry.
852. Hazael the successor of Hadad at Damascus dies and is Deified, as was Hadad before: and these Gods, together with Arathes the wife of Hadad, were worshipt in their Sepulchres or Temples, 'till the days of Josephus the Jew; and the Syrians boasted their antiquity, not knowing, saith Josephus, that they were novel.
844. The Æolic Migration. Bœotia, formerly called Cadmeis, is seized by the Bœotians.
838. Cheops Reigns in Egypt. He built the greatest Pyramid for his sepulchre, and forbad the worship of the former Kings; intending to have been worshipped himself.
825. The Heraclides, after three Generations, or an hundred years, reckoned from their former expedition, return into Peloponnesus. Henceforward, to the end of the firstMessenian war, reigned ten Kings of Sparta by one Race, and nine by another; ten of Messene, and nine of Arcadia: which, by reckoning (according to the ordinary course of nature) about twenty years to a Reign, one Reign with another, will take up about 190 years. And the seven Reigns more in one of the two Races of the Kings of Sparta, and eight in the other, to the battle at Thermopylæ; may take up 150 years more: and so place the return of the Heraclides, about 820 years before Christ.
824. Cephren Reigns in Egypt, and builds another great Pyramid.
808. Mycerinus Reigns there, and begins the third great Pyramid. He shut up the body of his daughter in a hollow ox, and caused her to be worshipped daily with odours.
804. The war, between the Athenians and Spartans, in which Codrus, King of the Athenians, is slain.
801. Nitocris, the sister of Mycerinus, succeeds him, and finishes the third great Pyramid.
794. The Ionic Migration, under the conduct of the sons of Codrus.
790. Pul founds the Assyrian Empire.
788. Asychis Reigns in Egypt, and builds the eastern Portico of the Temple of Vulcan very splendidly; and a large Pyramid of brick, made of mud dug out of the Lake of Mœris.Egypt breaks into several Kingdoms. Gnephactus and Bocchoris Reign successively in the upper EgyptStephanathisNecepsos and Nechus, at SaisAnysis or Amosis, atAnysis or Hanes; and Tacellotis, at Bubaste.
776. Iphitus restores the Olympiads. And from this Æra the Olympiads are now reckonedGnephactus Reigns at Memphis.
772. Necepsos and Petosiris invent Astrology in Egypt.
760. Semiramis begins to flourish; Sanchoniatho writes.
751. Sabacon the Ethiopian, invades Egypt, now divided into various Kingdoms, burns Bocchoris, slays Nechus, and makes Anysis fly.
747. Pul, King of Assyria, dies, and is succeeded at Nineveh by Tiglathpilasser, and at Babylon by Nabonassar. The Egyptians, who fled from Sabacon, carry their Astrology and Astronomy to Babylon, and found the Æra of Nabonassar in Egyptian years.
740. Tiglathpilasser, King of Assyria, takes Damascus, and captivates the Syrians.
729. Tiglathpilasser is succeeded by Salmanasser.
721. Salmanasser, King of Assyria, carries the Ten Tribes into captivity.
719. Sennacherib Reigns over AssyriaArchias the son of Evagetus, of the stock of Hercules, leads a Colony from Corinth into Sicily, and builds Syracuse.
717. Tirhakah Reigns in Ethiopia.
714. Sennacherib is put to flight by the Ethiopians and Egyptians, with great slaughter.
711. The Medes revolt from the AssyriansSennacherib slainAsserhadon succeeds him. This is that Asserhadon-Pul, or Sardanapalus, the son of Anacyndaraxis, orSennacherib, who built Tarsus and Anchiale in one day.
710. Lycurgus, brings the poems of Homer out of Asia into Greece.
708. Lycurgus, becomes tutor to Charillus or Charilaus, the young King of SpartaAristotle makes Lycurgus as old as Iphitus, because his name was upon the Olympic Disc. But the Disc was one of the five games called the Quinquertium, and the Quinquertium was first instituted upon the eighteenth Olympiad. Socrates and Thucydides made the institutions of Lycurgus about 300 years older than the end of the Peloponnesian war, that is, 705 years before Christ.
701. Sabacon, after a Reign of 50 years, relinquishes Egypt to his son Sevechus or Sethon, who becomes Priest of Vulcan, and neglects military affairs.
698. Manasseh Reigns.
697. The Corinthians begin first of any men to build ships with three orders of oars, called Triremes. Hitherto the Greeks had used long vessels of fifty oars.
687. Tirhakah Reigns in Egypt.
681. Asserhadon invades Babylon.
673. The Jews conquered by Asserhadon, and Manasseh carried captive to Babylon.
671. Asserbadon invades Egypt. The government of Egypt committed to twelve princes.
668. The western nations of SyriaPhœnicia and Egypt, revolt from the AssyriansAsserhadon dies, and is succeeded by SaosduchinusManasseh returns from Captivity.
658. Phraortes Reigns in Media. The Prytanes Reign in Corinth, expelling their Kings.
657. The Corinthians overcome the Corcyreans at sea: and this was the oldest sea fight.
655. Psammiticus becomes King of all Egypt, by conquering the other eleven Kings with whom he had already reigned fifteen years: he reigned about 39 years more. Henceforward the Ionians had access into Egypt; and thence came the Ionian Philosophy, Astronomy and Geometry.
652. The first Messenian war begins: it lasted twenty years.
647. Charops, the first decennial Archon of the Athenians. Some of these Archons might dye before the end of the ten years, and the remainder of the ten years be supplied by a new Archon. And hence the seven decennial Archons might not take up above forty or fifty years. Saosduchinus King of Assyria dies, and is succeeded by Chyniladon.
640. Josiah Reigns in Judæa.
636. Phraortes> King of the Medes, is slain in a war against the AssyriansAstyages succeeds him.
635. The Scythians invade the Medes and Assyrians.
633. Battus builds Cyrene, where Irasa, the city of Antæus, had stood.
627. Rome is built.
625. Nabopolassar revolts from the King of Assyria, and Reigns over BabylonPhalantus leads the Parthenians into Italy, and builds Tarentum.
617. Psammiticus dies. Nechaoh reigns in Egypt.
611. Cyaxeres Reigns over the Medes.
610. The Princes of the Scythians slain in a feast by Cyaxeres.
609. Josiah slain. Cyaxeres and Nebuchadnezzar overthrow Nineveh, and, by sharing the Assyrian Empire, grow great.
607. Creon the first annual Archon of the Athenians. The second Messenian war begins. Cyaxeres makes the Scythians retire beyond Colchos and Iberia, and seizes theAssyrian Provinces of ArmeniaPontus and Cappadocia.
606. Nebuchadnezzar invades Syria and Judæa.
604. Nabopolassar dies, and is succeeded by his Son Nebuchadnezzar, who had already Reigned two years with his father.
600. Darius the Mede, the son of Cyaxeres, is born.
599. Cyrus is born of Mandane, the Sister of Cyaxeres, and daughter of Astyages.
596. Susiana and Elam conquered by NebuchadnezzarCaranus and Perdiccas fly from Phidon, and found the Kingdom of MacedonPhidon introduces Weights and Measures, and the Coining of Silver Money.
590. Cyaxeres makes war upon Alyattes King of Lydia.
588. The Temple of Solomon is burnt by Nebuchadnezzar. The Messenians being conquered, fly into Sicily, and build Messana.
585. In the sixth year of the Lydian war, a total Eclipse of the Sun, predicted by ThalesMay the 28th, puts an end to a Battel between the Medes and Lydians: Whereupon they make Peace, and ratify it by a marriage between Darius Medus the son of Cyaxeres, and Ariene the daughter of Alyattes.
584. Phidon presides in the 49th Olympiad.
580. Phidon is overthrown. Two men chosen by lot, out of the city Elis, to preside in the Olympic Games.
572. Draco is Archon of the Athenians, and makes laws for them.
568. The Amphictions make war upon the Cirrheans, by the advice of Solon, and take CirrhaClisthenesAlcmæon and Eurolicus commanded the forces of the Amphictions, and were contemporary to Phidon. For Leocides the son of Phidon, and Megacles the son of Alcmæon, at one and the same time, courted Agarista the daughter of Clisthenes.
569. Nebuchadnezzar invades EgyptDarius the Mede Reigns.
562. Solon, being Archon of the Athenians, makes laws for them.
557. Periander dies, and Corinth becomes free from Tyrants.
555. Nabonadius Reigns at Babylon. His Mother Nitocris adorns and fortifies that City.
550. Pisistratus becomes Tyrant at Athens. The Conference between Crœsus and Solon.
549. Solon dies, Hegestratus being Archon of Athens.
544. Sardes is taken by CyrusDarius the Mede recoins the Lydian money into Darics.
538. Babylon is taken by Cyrus.
536. Cyrus overcomes Darius the Mede, and translates the Empire to the Persians. The Jews return from Captivity, and found the second Temple.
529. Cyrus dies. Cambyses Reigns,
521. Darius the son of Hystaspes Reigns. The Magi are slain. The various Religions of the several Nations of Persia, which consisted in the worship of their ancient Kings, are abolished; and by the influence of Hystaspes and Zoroaster, the worship of One God, at Altars, without Temples is set up in all Persia.
520. The second Temple is built at Jerusalem by the command of Darius.
515. The second Temple is finished and dedicated.
513. Harmodius and Aristogiton, slay Hipparchus the son of Pisistratus, Tyrant of the Athenians.
508. The Kings of the Romans expelled, and Consuls erected.
491. The Battle of Marathon.
485. Xerxes Reigns.
480. The Passage of Xerxes over the Hellespont into Greece, and Battles of Thermopylæ and Salamis.
464. Artaxerxes Longimanus Reigns.
457. Ezra returns into JudæaJohanan the father of Jaddua was now grown up, having a chamber in the Temple.
444. Nehemiah returns into JudæaHerodotus writes.
431. The Peloponnesian war begins.
428. Nehemiah drives away Manasseh the brother of Jaddua, because he had married Nicaso the daughter of Sanballat.
424. Darius Nothus Reigns.
422. Sanballat builds a Temple in Mount Gerizim and makes his son-in-law Manasseh the first High-Priest thereof.
412. Hitherto the Priests and Levites were numbered, and written in the Chronicles of the Jews, before the death of Nehemiah: at which time either Johanan or Jaddua was High-Priest, And here Ends the Sacred History of the Jews.
405. Artaxerxes Mnemon Reigns. The end of the Peloponnesian war.
359. Artaxerxes Ochus Reigns.
338. Arogus Reigns.
336. Darius Codomannus Reigns.
332. The Persian Empire conquered by Alexander the great.
331. Darius Codomannus, the last King of Persia, slain.