SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION—BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY.
PREHISTORIC TEXTILE FABRICS
|BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY ANNUAL REPORT 1882 PL. XXXIX|
1. POTSHERD. 2. CLAY CAST.
3. POTSHERD. 4. CLAY CAST.
5. POTSHERD. 6. CLAY CAST.
A. Hoen & Co. Litho
POTTERY WITH IMPRESSIONS OF TEXTILE FABRICS.
PREHISTORIC TEXTILE FABRICS OF THE UNITED STATES,
DERIVED FROM IMPRESSIONS ON POTTERY.
By W. H. Holmes.
"It seems incredible that even an Indian would be so prodigal of time and labor as to make the necessary quantity of well-twisted cord or thread, and weave it into shape for the mere purpose of serving as a mold which must be destroyed in making a single copy."
|Fig. 60.—Ancient British vase with cord ornamentation.||Fig. 61.—Ancient fabric marked vessel, Pennsylvania.|
|Fig. 62.—Type of Group one—portion of a coffee sack.||Fig. 63.—Section.|
|Fig. 64.—Fabric impressed upon ancient pottery, New York.|
|Fig. 65.—From a fragment of ancient pottery, District of Columbia.|
|Fig. 66.—From a fragment of ancient Cliff-house pottery.|
|Fig. 67.—Fabric from a cave in Kentucky.|
|Fig. 68.—Fabric from Swiss Lake-Dwellings.|
|Fig. 69.—Cloth from a mound, Ohio.||Fig. 70.—Cloth from a mound, Ohio.||Fig. 71.—Section.|
"The separation between the fibre and the wood appears to have been as thorough and effectual as at this day by the process of rotting and hackling. The thread, though coarse, is uniform in size, and regularly spun. Two modes of weaving are recognized: In one, by the alternate intersection of the warp and woof, and in the other, the weft is wound once around the warp, a process which could not be accomplished except by hand. In the illustration the interstices have been enlarged to show the method of weaving, but in the original the texture was about the same as that in coarse sail-cloth. In some of the Butler County specimens there is evidently a fringed border."
|Fig. 72.—From ancient pottery, Tennessee.||Fig. 73.—Section.|
|Fig. 74.—Diagram showing the method of weaving Form 2.|
|Fig. 75.—Theoretic device for working the twist.|
|Fig. 76.—From fragment of mound pottery, Tennessee.|
|Fig. 77.—From ancient pottery, Georgia.|
|Fig. 78.—From ancient pottery, Tennessee.|
|Fig. 79.—From ancient pottery, Tennessee.|
|Fig. 80.—From ancient pottery, Tennessee.|
|Fig. 81.—From a piece of clay, Arkansas.|
|Fig. 82.—From fragment of a large salt vessel, Saline River, Illinois.|
|Fig. 83.—From a salt vessel, Saline River, Illinois.|
|Fig. 84.—From ancient pottery, Missouri.|
|Fig. 85.—From ancient pottery, Tennessee.|
"the warp is composed of four cords, that is, of two double and twisted cords, and the woof of onesuch doubled and twisted cord which passes between the two parts of the warp; the latter being twisted at each change, allowing the cords to be brought close together so as to cover the woof almost entirely."
|Fig. 86.—Fabric from a copper celt, Iowa.|
|Fig. 87.—Modern work, Vancouver's Island.|
|Figs. 88 and 89.—Fabrics from the Lake Dwellings, Switzerland.|
|Fig. 90.—Fabric from the Lake Dwellings, Switzerland.|
|Fig. 92.—Theoretical device for weaving third group.|
|Fig. 93.—From the ancient pottery of Tennessee.|
|Fig. 94.||Fig. 95.|
|From the ancient pottery of Tennessee.|
|Fig. 96.—From ancient pottery, Tennessee.|
"the woof is made of two strands, crossing the warp in such a manner that the strands alternate in passing, over and under it, and at the same time inclosing two alternate strands, of the latter, making a letter X figure of the warp, united at the center of the X by the double strands of the woof."
|Fig. 97.—Modern fabric, Northwest coast.|
|Fig. 98.—Diagonal fabric, ancient pottery of Tennessee.|
|Fig. 99.—From the ancient pottery of Alabama.|
|Fig. 100.—From ancient pottery, Iowa.|
|Fig. 101.—Plaiting of a sandal, Kentucky cave.||Fig. 102.—Braiding done by the|
|Fig. 103.—From ancient pottery, District of Columbia.|
|Fig. 104.—Net from the pottery of North Carolina.|
|Fig. 105.—Net from the pottery of North Carolina.|
|Fig. 106.—Net from the Swiss Lake Dwellings. Keller, plate, CXXX.|
|Fig. 107.—From the ancient pottery of New Jersey.|
|Fig. 108.—From the ancient pottery of New Jersey.|
|Fig. 109.—From the ancient pottery of New Jersey.||Fig. 110.—From the ancient pottery of Pennsylvania.|
|Fig. 111.—From the ancient pottery of Ohio.|
|Fig. 112.—From the ancient pottery of New Jersey.|
|Fig. 113.—From the ancient pottery of Alabama.|
|Fig. 114.—Cord-markings from ancient pottery of Maryland.|
|Fig. 115.—Cord-markings from ancient pottery of Alabama.|
Mound Builders: Artifacts from Missouri Mounds
Mound Builders: Textiles
Mound Builders: Artifacts from Tennessee