Monday, May 27, 2013

Indo European Urn Burials in South Carolina

Indo European Urn Burials in South Carolina

Indo European

The Beaker People who are most noted for their construction of Stonehenge are so named because of their tulip shaped beakers that were sometimes used to house the dead in conical burial mounds.



To close the subject of subterranean burial proper, the following account of urn-burial in Foster may be added:
Urn-burial appears to have been practiced to some extent by the mound-builders, particularly in some of the Southern States. In the mounds on the Wateree River, near Camden, S.C., according to Dr. Blanding, ranges of vases, one above the other, filled with human remains, were found. Sometimes when the mouth of the vase is small the skull is placed with the face downward in the opening, constituting a sort of cover. Entire cemeteries have been found in which urn-burial alone seems to have been practiced. Such a one was accidentally discovered not many years since in Saint Catherine’s Island, off the coast of Georgia. 



Tulip shaped burial urns from Camden South Carolina



Beaker People  Tulip shaped burial Urns from England

Mysterious Red Haired Mummy Discovered in a Kentucky Cave




Aug. 24th, 1815.
Mysterious Red Haired Mummy Discovered in a Kentucky Cave


Guanches Red Haired Mumy from China.  Is There A Connection?

Dear Sir: I offer you some observations on a curious piece of American antiquity now in New York. It is a human body: found in one of the limestone caverns of Kentucky. It is a perfect desiccation; all the fluids are dried up. The skin, bones, and other firm parts are in a state of entire preservation. I think it enough to have puzzled Bryant and all the arch├Žologists.


This was found in exploring a calcareous cave in the neighborhood of Glasgow for saltpeter.


These recesses, though underground, are yet dry enough to attract and retain the nitric acid. It combines with lime and potash; and probably the earthy matter of these excavations contains a good proportion of calcareous carbonate. Amidst them drying and antiseptic ingredients, it may be conceived that putrefaction would be stayed, and the solids preserved from decay. The outer envelope of the body is a deer-skin, probably dried in the usual way, and perhaps softened before its application by rubbing. The next covering is a deer’s skin, whose hair had been cut away by a sharp instrument resembling a batter’s knife. The remnant of the hair and the gashes in the skin nearly resemble a sheared pelt of beaver. The next wrapper is of cloth made of twine doubled and twisted. But the thread does not appear to have been formed by the wheel, nor the web by the loom. The warp and filling seem to have been crossed and knotted by an operation like that of the fabric of the northwest coast, and of the Sandwich Islands. Such a botanist as the lamented Muhlenbergh could determine the plant which furnished the fibrous material.

The innermost tegument is a mantle of cloth, like the preceding, but furnished with large brown feathers, arranged and fashioned with great art, so as to be capable of guarding the living wearer from wet and cold. The plumage is distinct and entire, and the whole bears a near similitude to the feathery cloaks now worn by the nations of the northwestern coast of America. A Wilson might tell from what bird they were derived.
The body is in a squatting posture, with the right arm reclining forward, and its hand encircling the right leg. The left arm hangs down, with its hand inclined partly under the seat. The individual, who was a male, did not probably exceed the age of fourteen at his death. There is near the occiput a deep and extensive fracture of the skull, which probably killed him. The skin has sustained little injury; it is of a dusky colour, but the natural hue cannot be decided with exactness, from its present appearance. The scalp, with small exceptions, is covered with sorrel or foxey hair. The teeth are white and sound. The hands and feet, in their shrivelled state, are slender and delicate. All this is worthy the investigation of our acute and perspicacious colleague, Dr. Holmes.
There is nothing bituminous or aromatic in or about the body, like the Egyptian mummies, nor are there bandages around any part. Except the several wrappers, the body is totally naked. There is no sign of a suture or incision about the belly; whence it seems that the viscera were not removed.
It may now be expected that I should offer some opinion as to the antiquity and race of this singular execution.
First, then, I am satisfied that it does not belong to that class of white men of which we are members.
2dly. Nor do I believe that it ought to be referred to the bands of Spanish adventurers, who, between the years 1500 and 1600, rambled up the Mississippi, and along its tributary streams. But on this head I should like to know the opinion of my learned and sagacious friend, Noah Webster.
3dly. I am equally obliged to reject the opinion that it belonged to any of the tribes of aborigines, now or lately inhabiting Kentucky.
4thly. The mantle of the feathered work, and the mantle of twisted threads, so nearly resemble the fabric of the indigenous of Wakash and the Pacific Islands, that I refer this individual to that era of time, and that generation of men, which preceded the Indians of the Green River, and of the place where these relicks were found. This conclusion is strengthened by the consideration that such manufactures are not prepared by the actual and resident red men of the present day. If the Abbe Clavigero had had this case before him, he would have thought of the people who constructed those ancient forts and mounds, whose exact history no man living can give. But I forbear to enlarge; my intention being merely to manifest my respect to the society for having enrolled me among its members, and to invite the attention of its Antiquarians to further inquiry on a subject of such curiousity.



With respect, I remain yours,



SAMUEL L. MITCHILL.






Monday, May 13, 2013

Giant Human Skeleton Unearthed at Kings College England

Giant Human Skeleton Unearthed at Kings College England


In February, 1830, during the excavation of ground on the eastern side of Somerset House, now the site of King's College, a cartload of human bones was found ; and among them were two skulls and several bones of extraordinary dimensions, which must have belonged to persons of great stature.

Giant Skeleton Discovered in England

Giant Skeleton Discovered in England


In March, 1813, was found at King John's Palace, Old Ford, a stone coffin containing the remains of a skeleton, which, from the length of the thigh-bone, must have belonged to a person nearly seven feet long. A stone coffin in Devonshire contained a thigh-bone belonging to a man eight feet nine inches high.

Ancient 9 Foot Human Skeleton Discovered in Derbyshire, England

Ancient 9 foot human skeleton discovered in Derbyshire , England




 Dr. Robert Bigsby, in his exhaustive History of Repton, in Derbyshire, 1854, gives us an account of the discovery, in 1687, of an extraordinary grave in Allen's-close, Repton, which contained a skeleton nine feet long, within a stone coffin, with one hundred other skeletons round it. Dr. Simon Degge collected in the year 1729 as many facts relating to the event as he could, and subsequently communicated them to the Royal Society. The following particulars, derived from the Philosophical Transactions for 1734, relate to the discovery. Degge says that Thomas Walker, a labourer, eighty -eight years old, gave him this account : "About forty years since, cutting hillocks near the surface, he met with an old stone wall; when, clearing further, he found it to be a square enclosure of fifteen feet. It had been covered ; but the top was decayed and fallen in, being only supported by wood joists. In this he found a stone coffin ; and, with difficulty removing the cover, saw the skeleton of a human body nine feet long, and round it one hundred skeletons of the ordinary size, laid with the feet pointing to the stone coffin. The head of the great skeleton he gave to Mr. Bowes, master of the free school. I enquired of his son, one of the present masters, concerning it; but it is lost; yet he says he remembers the skull in his father's closet, and that he had often heard his father mention this gigantic corpse, and thinks that the skull was in proportion to a body of that stature. The bottom of this dormitory was covered with broad flat stones, and in the wall was a door-case, with steps to go down to it, whose entrance was forty yards nearer the church and river. The steps and stone were much worn. It is in a close on the north side of the church ; and over this repository grows a sycamore tree, planted by the old man when he filled in the earth. The present owner will not suffer it to be opened, the lady of the manor having forbidden it. This was attested to us by several old persons who had seen and measured the skeleton." Dr. Bigsby adds : " This ancient sepulchre was again opened in 1787, when the bones of a very gigantic 

Saturday, May 11, 2013

The Giant 8 Foot Roman Emperor Maximus

The Giant 8 Foot Emporer Maximus



The Emperor Maximus was about eight feet and a half or nine feet high; he was also of great bulk; and was in the habit of using his wife's bracelet for a thumb-ring. His shoe was a foot longer than that of any other man. His strength was so great, that he was able to draw a carriage which two oxen could not move. He could strike out a horse's teeth with a blow of his fist, and break its thigh with a kick. He generally ate forty pounds' weight of flesh, and drank six gallons of wine, every day. Before he became emperor he overcame sixteen slaves in run ning, one after the other. He then kept up with the emperor on horseback, and having fatigued him in the course, he was opposed by seven of the most active soldiers, and easily conquered them.

Was Hercules Nephilim?

Was Hercules Nephilim?

Hercules fights Hydra. Hercules or Og is usually depicted with a club.

Hercules, the first hero of profane historians, who gave him seven feet of height, was employed by the gods to make war against the Gigantes, and accordingly he killed Alcyoneus; but as the giant fell upon the earth he came to life again. Hercules, however, dragged him out of his native land, and finally slew him. Porphyrion attacked Hercules, but was killed by him and Zeus combined, the former using his arrows, and the latter a flash of lightning. The remaining giants were then killed by the gods and Hercules ; and some of them were crushed to pieces under mountains, others were flayed alive, others were beaten to death with clubs, and others were buried by their conquerors under volcanic islands. Lempriere says the origin of the story of the Gigantes must be sought for in such physical phenomena as volcanic disruptions; and it is to be noticed that Homer and later writers place these monsters in volcanic districts.

The Cerne Giant is  Hercules, and Og or Magog.  The British giants like those in the Bible were born from the unholy union of women and angels.

Greek History of the Giant Race

Greek History of the Giant Race




We find profane history as fertile in stories of giants as Biblical history. Heathen mythology is filled with such marvellous legends. Foremost are those of the Titans, who were, according to some, forty-five in number, and were the sons of Uranus or Ccelus, by Ge or Terra, his mother, whom he married. They were all of gigantic stature and proportionate strength. Their wars against the gods are very celebrated in mythology. They were so much oppressed by their father, that they conspired against him ; and they were assisted by their mother, who provided them with a scythe, with which one of them wounded his father. From the blood that flowed sprang the Gigantes, men of most prodigious size and fearful aspect. Some had terrible faces and the tails of dragons ; and others, as Cottus, Briareus, and Gyges, had fifty heads, one hundred arms, and serpents in the place of legs. The defeat of their brethren, the Titans, incensed them against Jupiter ; and they all conspired to dethrone him. They accordingly made an attack upon the gods with huge rocks and trees and burning woods, under the leadership of Porphyrion and Alcyoneus, the most formidable among them; and they also heaped Mount Ossa upon Pelion to scale the heavens. They were invincible so long as they remained in their native land, and were not liable to be killed by anyone except a mortal.

Friday, May 10, 2013

The Biblical Giant Race Called the Anak

The Biblical Giant Race Called the Anak



The race of giants called Anakim, so named from their stature or their strength, were the descendants of Arba, and dwelt at Hebron, according to Joshua xv. 13, and xxi. 11 ; and they were variously described as the sons of Anak, the descendants of Anak, and the sons of Anakim. The name of Anak is considered to be that of a race and not that of an individual. They were divided into three tribes, bearing the names of Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai respectively. Their stature appears to have much alarmed the spies sent by Moses into Canaan ; who upon their return related that all the people whom they saw in the land were " men of a great stature. And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants : and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight." (Numbers xiii. 32, 33.) The names of those giants became proverbial with the Israelites, as we learn from Deuteronemy ix. 2 : "A people great and tall, the children of the Anakims, whom thou knowest, and of whom thou hast heard say, Who can stand before the children of Anak ?" They were, however, utterly dispersed by Joshua ; and only a small remnant found refuge in Gaza, Grath, and Ashdod. Their chief city became the possession of Caleb, and after this time they appear to have died out of Biblical narrative.

The Bible's King of the Giant Race -OG

The Bible's King of the Giant Race -OG


    Og's Bed

    Thus it would seem that these giants were entirely dispersed ; and Og king of Bashan is said (Deuteronomy iii. 11) to have been the only remnant of them : " For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron ; is it not in Rabbath of the children of Am nion? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man." The cubit of a man is the space from the tip of the finger to the elbow, that is half a yard ; therefore Og's bedstead was thirteen feet and a half long. The fact that this mighty ruler was the last of his race is again recorded in Joshua xii. 4: "And the coast of Og king of Bashan, which was of the remnant of the giants, that dwelt at Ashtaroth and at Edrei." And again, in the next chapter, verse 12 : " All the kingdom of Og in Bashan, which reigned in Ashtaroth and in Edrei, who remained of the remnant of the giants : for these did Moses smite, and cast them out." Although Og's bedstead was nine cubits long, it does not follow that he was thirteen feet and a half in height, because a bedstead is usually about one-third longer than the sleeper ; therefore it is probable that Og was about nine feet high. He has, however, furnished materials for numerous

Noah's Flood and the New Race of Giants

Noah's Flood and the New Race of Giants


However, the Biblical Deluge purged the world of these fallen angels and their monstrous children, and they afterwards existed only in imaginative narrative. The stories of the commingling of these heaven-born rebels with the women of the earth have a close affinity to the Greek legends about the mythological deities having offspring by mortal women ; and also to the Indian notions of the solar and lunar races of men, Suras and Asuras, who, according to Hindu traditions, sprang from the gods. The next race of giants mentioned in the Bible, and being, moreover, the first postdiluvian monsters, are the Rephaim, of whom the earliest record is made in Genesis xiv. 5, where we are told that Chedorlaomer and some allied kings defeated them at Ashteroth Karnaim. Afterwards they were, with other tribes, given to Abraham (Genesis xv. 20). In Deuteronomy ii. 10, 11, we are told, in reference to the wilderness of Moab, that " the Emims dwelt therein in times past, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims; which also were accounted giants, as the Anakims ; but the Moabites called them Emims." And in verses 20 and 21 it is said that the land of Ammon " also was accounted a land of giants : giants dwelt therein in old time ; and the Ammonites call them Zamzummims ; a peopie great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims ; but the Lord destroyed them before them ; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in their stead."

Thursday, May 9, 2013

Fabrics from Cave Burials in Kentucky and Tennessee

Fabrics from Cave Burials in Kentucky and Tennessee


Fabric from a cave burial in Kentucky
At an early date in the history of the country reports began to find their way into print relating to the discovery of mortuary fabrics in caverns and shelters. Extracts from some of these publications may be given.
From the writing of John Haywood historian of Tennessee, we have the following:
In the spring of the year 1811, was found in a copperas cave in Warren county, in West Tennessee, about 15 miles southwest from Sparta, and 20 from McMinnville, the bodies of two human beings, which had been covered by the dirt or ore from which copperas was made. One of these persons was a male, the other a female. They were interred in baskets, made of cane, curiously wrought, and evidencing great mechanic skill. They were both dislocated at the hip joint, and were placed erect in the baskets, with a covering made of cane to fit the baskets in which they were placed. The flesh of these persons was entire and undecayed, of a brown dryish colour, produced by time, the flesh having adhered closely to the bones and sinews. Around the female, next her body, was placed a well dressed deer skin. Next to this was placed a rug, very curiously wrought, of the bark of a tree and feathers. The bark seemed to have been formed of small strands well twisted. Around each of these strands, feathers were rolled, and the whole woven into a cloth of firm texture, after the manner of our common coarse fabrics. This rug was about three feet wide, and between six and seven feet in length. The whole of the ligaments thus framed of bark were completely covered with feathers, forming a body of about one eighth of an inch in thickness, the feathers extending about one quarter of an inch in length from the strand to which they were confined. The appearance was highly diversified by green, blue, yellow and black, presenting different shades of colour when reflected upon by the light in different positions. The next covering was an undressed deer skin, around which was rolled, in good order, a plain shroud manufactured after the same order as the one ornamented with feathers. This article resembled very much in its texture the bags generally used for the purpose of holding 030coffee exported from Havanna to the United States. The female had in her hand a fan formed of the tail feathers of a turkey. The points of these feathers were curiously bound by a buckskin string, well dressed, and were thus closely bound for about one inch from the points. About three inches from the point they were again bound, by another deer skin string, in such a manner that the fan might be closed and expanded at pleasure. * * *
The cave in which they were found, abounded in nitrecopperas, alum, and salts. The whole of this covering, with the baskets, was perfectly sound, without any marks of decay.[51]
There was also a scoop net made of bark thread; a mockasin made of the like materials; a mat of the same materials, enveloping human bones, were found in saltpetre dirt, six feet below the surface. The net and other things mouldered on being exposed to the sun.[52]
In the year 1815 a remarkably interesting set of mortuary fabrics was recovered from a saltpeter cave near Glasgow, Kentucky. A letter from Samuel L. Mitchell, published by the American Antiquarian Society, contains the following description of the condition of the human remains and of the nature of its coverings:
The outer envelope of the body is a deer skin, probably dried in the usual way, and perhaps softened before its application, by rubbing. The next covering is a deer skin, whose hair had been cut away by a sharp instrument, resembling a hatter's knife. The remnant of the hair, and the gashes in the skin, nearly resemble the sheared pelt of beaver. The next wrapper of cloth is made of twine doubled and twisted. But the thread does not appear to have been formed by the wheel, nor the web by the loom. The warp and filling seemed to have been crossed and knotted by an operation like that of the fabricks of the northwest coast, and of the Sandwich islands. * * * The innermost tegument is a mantle of cloth like the preceding; but furnished with large brown feathers, arranged and fastened with great art, so as to be capable of guarding the living wearer from wet and cold. The plumage is distinct and entire, and the whole bears a near similitude to the feathery cloaks now worn by the nations of the northwestern coast of America.[53]
The Bureau of Ethnology had the good fortune to secure recently a number of representative pieces of burial fabrics of the classes mentioned in the preceding extracts, and somewhat detailed descriptions of these will sufficiently illustrate the art as practiced by the early inhabitants of the middle portions of the country.
The relics which have come into the possession of the Bureau were obtained in 1885 by Mr. A. J. McGill from a rock shelter on "Clifty" or Cliff Creek, Morgan county, Tennessee. Mr. J. W. Emmert, through whom they were procured, reports that they were found in a grave 3½ feet below the surface and in earth strongly charged with niter and perhaps other preservative salts. The more pliable cloths, together with skeins of vegetal fiber, a dog's skull, some bone tools, and portions of human bones and hair, were rolled up in a large split-cane mat. The grave was situated about as shown in the accompanying section (figure 4). A shelf some 20 feet in width, with depressed floor, occurs1about midway between the creek bed and the slightly overhanging ledge above, the whole height being estimated at 300 feet.

The Bibles Pre-Flood Nephilim Giants

The Bibles Pre-Flood Nephilim Giants



Such men are first written of in Genesis vi. 4, under the name of Nephilim, as follows : " There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men, which were of old, men of renown." After the time when these mar vellous Nephilim came upon the earth, the sons of God, mingling with the daughters of men, produced a race of violent and powerful Gibborim, who were not necessarily giants in our sense of the word, al though they were generally represented to be such. Opinions vary upon the question who were "the sons of God," the parents of these people; some Hebraists conceiving them to have been men of power, and others, men with great gifts. The Easterns themselves have, however, indulged in the wildest fancies about these children of the Creator, and have invented various distorted legends respect ing them. According to the spurious book of Enoch, certain angels sent by God to guard the earth were seduced from their allegiance by the beauty of the terrestrial women, by whom they had demoniacal sons three thousand cubits high. Some of these monsters were respectively named Aza, Azael, Leuixas, Machsael, and Schemchozai. Milton, in his Paradise Regained, makes Satan say to Belial :
" Before the Flood thou with thy lusty crew, False-titled sons of God, roaming the earth, Cast wanton eyes on the daughters of men, And coupled with them, and begot a race."

Before the Flood thou with thy lusty crew, False-titled sons of God, roaming the earth, Cast wanton eyes on the daughters of men, And coupled with them, and begot a race." However, the Deluge purged the world of these fallen angels and their monstrous children, and they afterwards existed only in imaginative nar rative. The stories of the commingling of these heaven-born rebels with the women of the earth have a close affinity to the Greek legends about the mythological deities having offspring by mortal women ; and also to the Indian notions of the solar and lunar races of men, Suras and Asuras, who, according to Hindu traditions, sprang from the gods.