Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Hopeton Sacred Via was for the Procession of the Dead to Mound City

Hopeton Sacred Via was for the Procession of the Dead to Mound City

The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, 1892

The covered way at Hopeton leads towards Mound City. May it not be that this was the way through which processions passed on the occasions when the annual burial feast or "great burning" took place?  The passage across the river by a ferry to the place of burning would resemble the Egyptian custom, and would fulfil; the picture which Virgil has drawn of Charon crossing the river Styx with the souls of the dead.

Were the dead ferried across the Scioto from Hopeton to Mound City when the sun aligned with the sacred via at the sunset of the Winter solstice.

Monday, December 29, 2014

Portsmouth Ohio's Earthwork Decoded - Druid's Water and Solar Cult

Portsmouth Ohio's Earthwork Decoded - Druid's Water and Solar Cult

  Let us consider the water cult.  It seems ton have existed in the Ohio Valley, but was closely connected with the solar cult, the ceremonies of that cult requiring the presence of water to make it complete. The water cult we recognize between some of the earthworks in Southern Ohio are identical to those in Great Britain.
  The first group of works which be shall cite is the one at Portsmouth.  The chief evidence is given by the avenues or the covered ways, which bseem to have connected the enclosures on different sides of the river.  These, by the aid of the ferry across the river, must have been the scene of extensive religious procession, which can be compared to nothing better than the mysterious procession of Druid priests, which once characterized the sacrifices to the sun among the ancient works of Great Britain.
   It is in the middle group that we discover the phallic symbol, the fire cult, the crescent of the moon and the sun circle. In the works of the west bank of the Scioto we find the effigy enclosed in a circle as a sign of animal worship, and in the concentric circles with the enclosed conical mound, on the Kentucky side, we find the symbols of sun worship.

The water cult was combined with the solar cult at the great works at Avebury, England; the avenues passed over Kennet Creek before they reached the circle at Beckhampton; the same is true at Stanton Druew and at Mount murray, in the Isle of Man.  In each of these places were coverede avenues reaching across the marshy ground toward the circles.
   At the circles were alters, whereon human sacrifice may have been offered to the sun; but the avenues mark the place through which procession passed in making their sacrifices, - a passage over water being essential to the ceremony.
   This is significant in connection with the works at Portsmouth.  here the avenues approach the river in such a way as to show that a canoe ferry was used to cross the river, the ceremony being made more significant by those means.
As additional evidence that the works at Portsmouth were devoted to the water cult and were similar to those at Avebury in Great Britain, we would again refer to the character of the works at either end of the avenues. It can be proven that the most striking features at Avebury are duplicated here; the sun symbol being embodied in the concentric circles upon the Kentucky side; the phallic symbol in the horseshoe mounds upon the Ohio side and the avenues of standing stones correspond to the covered ways which connected the enclosures on the Kentucky side with that of the Ohio side.

We have dwelt upon these peculiarities of the works at Portsmouth for the very reason that they seem to prove the existence of a water cult, and because it so closely resembles those in which the water cult has been recognized in Great Britain. We maintain, however, that it was as cult which was associated with sun worship and that the phallic symbol was embodied here. We maintain that sacrifices were offered to the sun, and that the human victims were kept in the corral one one side of the river; that they were transported across the water and carried up to the third terrrace, and immolated near the horseshoew, and that afterwards the procession passed down the terrace, through the avenue, across the river, a second times, and mounted the spiral pathway to the summit of the terraced mound situated at the end of the avenue.

Monday, December 22, 2014

Corrected Map of the Adena Sun Temple Complex at New Castle, Indiana

Corrected Map of the Adena Sun Temple Complex at New Castle, Indiana

Corrected from Lilly's original map is the east west alignment of burial mound #1 with earthworks #2, #3 and # 4 to align with the Equinox sunrise and sunset. The largest henge # 11 was partially extended past the service road.

Lilly's original map of the positioning of the Sun Temples at New Castle, Indiana

Henge # 11 northern wall extended past the road and is still visible.

Henge # 2 is still visible in the winter months. In the background is mound #4.

Dakota, Natchez and Cherokee Traditions and Practices of the Ohio Hopewell Mound Builders

Dakota, Natchez and Cherokee Traditions of Living on the Ohio River and Building the Mounds

There are many similarities with the religion of the historic Natchez and the anient mound builders in the Ohio Valley. The Natchez performed ritual human sacrifice upon the death of a Sun. When a male Sun died, his wives were expected to accompany him by performing ritual suicide. We find men and women buried together in the Ohio mounds; did they die together ot was the woman sacrificed?Pictured above are 8 people who are being sacrificed at the death of the Natchez Sun King. The number reoccurs within the earthworks in the Ohio Valley.  Were these places of sacrifice of the Sun King?

Were subjects sacrificed at the 8 gateways of the Newark Ceremonial Center at the death of the Sun King?

Prehistoric America, Stephen Peet, 1903
First, let us consider the traditions of the Indian tribes as to their migrations.
1. The Cherokee were a tribe situated, at the opening of history, among the mountains of East Tennessee and perhaps as far east as North Carolina. There is a common tradition that the Cherokee were at one time in the Ohio Valley.
2.) The Dakotas; this tribe or stock was, at the opening of history located west of the Mississippi River, in the State that bears their name.  The Dakotas have a traditon they they were once on the Ohio River, and that they migrated from their to the west.
3.) The Natchez were a tribe formerly situated near the city of Natchez.  They were sun-worshippers.  It is supposed by some that the Natchez built the sun temples in Ohio, but they changed their methods and adopted the pyramid as their typical work afterwards.
4.0 The Tetons, a branch of the Dakotas, were probably once in the region, though their home was afterward in the northern part of Georgia.

Winter Solstice Solar Alignment at the Winchester, Indiana Ceremonial Earthwork

Winter Solstice Solar Alignment at the Winchester, Indiana Ceremonial Earthwork


On the morning of December 21, the sun would have aligned with the eastern gateway of the Earthwork located in Winchester, Indiana.  The eartworks estern gateway was aligned to the Summer Solstice sunset.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Iroquois Chief Joseph Brant Claims Ohio Mounds Constructed by an Ancient White Race

Iroquois Chief Joseph Brant Claims Ohio Mounds Constructed by an Ancient White Race

Life of Joseph Brant -Thayendanega
Includes the Wars of the American Revolution by William L. Stone 1838

Among other things relating to the western country" says Mr. Woodruff, " I was curious to learn in the course of my conversation with Captain Brant, what information he could give respecting the tumuli which are found on and near the margin of the rivers and lakes, from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. He stated, in reply, that the subject had long been agitated, but yet remained in some obscurity. "A tradition, he said prevailed among the different nations of Indians throughout that whole extensive range of country, and had been handed down through time immemorial, that in an age long gone by, there came white men from a foreign country, and by consent of the Indians established trading houses and settlements where these tumuli are found".

Giant Skeleton with an Upper Paleolithic Skull Found in a Clark County, Ohio Mound

Giant Skeleton with an Upper Paleolithic Skull Found in a Clark County, Ohio Mound

Skull from a Clark County, Ohio burial mounds shows the typical, Upper Paleolithic or Cro Magnon skull type of the Ohio giants. 

History of Clark County, Ohio, 1881
   Half a mile north of this fort is a huge mound, the base of which covers about one acre. From this mound many bones have been exhumed, of a race of beings differing greatly from the present, and having no similarity to the red man. A mile west of the fort above mentioned, on the farm of William Allen, is an ancient burying ground of an extinct race. The bones taken from this place are much larger than those of Americans, and, in many respects, give evidence of having belonged to prehistoric people.

Friday, December 19, 2014

Comanche Indian Legend of an Ancient White Race of Giant Mound Builders

Comanche Indian Legend of an Ancient White Race of Giant Mound Builders

Three Years Among the Comanches, 1859
This is the legend of the Comanches, as he related it : Innumerable moons ago, a race of white men, ten feet high, and far more rich and powerful than any white people now living, here inhabited a large range of country, extending from the rising to the setting sun. Their fortifications crowned the summits of the mountains, protecting their populous cities situated in the intervening valleys. They excelled every other nation which has flourished, either before or since, in all manner of cunning handicraft — were brave and warlike — ruling over the land they had wrested from its ancient possessors, with a high and haughty hand. Compared with them the pale faces of the prsent day, were as pigmies, both in art an arms. They drove the Indians from their homes, putting them to the sword, and occupying the valleys in which their fathers had dwelt before them since the world began. At length, in the height of their power and glory, when they remembered justice and mercy no more, and became proud and lifted up, the Great Spirit descended from above, sweeping them with fire and deluge from the face of the earth. The mounds we had seen on the table lands were the remnants of their fortresses, and the crumbling ruins that surrounded us, all that re mained of a mighty city. In like manner, continued The Rolling Thunder, the day will surely come when the present white race, which is driving the Indians before it, and despoiling them of their inheritance, and which, in the confidence of its strength, has become arrogant and boastful and forgotten God, will be swept from existence. For   the Great Spirit is just, — and as certainly as the rivers flow downward towards the salt sea, or the sun rises in the morning and sets at night, so certainly will He yet restore the land of their fathers to the red man, when the days of his affliction are passed.

Friday, December 12, 2014

Giant's Earthen Tomb Located North of Newark, Ohio at Homer

Giant's Earthen Tomb Located North of Newark, Ohio at Homer

This large burial mound is located in Homer, Ohio, north of Newark. Additional mounds near this one revealed skeletons 7 and 8 feet in length.  There was also a Sun Temple or henge located adjacent to this mound in the cemetery.

Licking County, Ohio
History of Licking County, Ohio 1881

The largest and most entire is at the village of Homer. Perhaps fifty years ago, a party of five or six settlers agreed to examine this mound in search of curiosities. They dug down about fifteen feet, but found nothing of value. In 1824 near an old fort, the outlines of which are still visible, on the bank of the creek adjoining the Homer cemetery, a very large human skeleton was found. It is stated that the jawbone would go over the face of the largest man present, with two hands placed between

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Ancient Human Giant's Earthen Tomb in Meigs County, Ohio

Discover North America's Ancient Giant Race and Explore Their Ancient Ruins

Monday, December 8, 2014

Giant Skeleton and Roman Coins Found in Jackson, Ohio

Giant Skeleton and Roman Coins Found in Jackson, Ohio      

Roman Emporer, Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC)

The Holmes County Republican, March 16, 1859

Discovery of a Mysterious Vault
Jackson, Ohio February 21.
     Our village is full of wonder and excitement.  Martin Marker, J. W. Hughes and Washington Long, in digging a grave in the cemetery near this village, about ten o' clock, this morning, came to a large flat stone about four feet below the surface, which stopped their further progress, until they procured assistance and removed the stone from its resting place of ages, when it was found to have closed the entrance to a subterranean vault.  All efforts thus far ( 3 P. M. ) to enter it with a light have proved unsuccessful, on account of the foul air with which it is filled.  By means of a rake, human bone of gigantic size have been raised, and a small chard of silver, with coins attached to each end.         The coins, though much defaced by time, have the appearance of those used among the Romans in the days of Scipio Africanus, though there were evident traces of hieroglyphic devices than cannot be deciphered.
       The men at the cemetery have by means of burning straw, made light in the vault and, though none have the courage to enter further than the entrance, it has been discovered that there is, immediateley to the west of the opening, a chamber of about ten feet square, with steps dilapitaded down its eastern side.  Three other chambe,rs branch out of this; one to the north, one to the south and the other to the west. We are all curious of course, to know when and by whom these vaults were made and filled.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

6 Foot Neanderthal Hybrid Uncovered in Nebraska

6 Foot Neanderthal Hybrid Uncovered in Nebraska

 Science Magazine,  Nov. 16, 1906 


      After careful investigation the writer stands ready to announce his belief in the occurrence of human remains in the loess of this state, and for this primitive type he has proposed the name Nebraska loess man. 

Such importance attaches to the discovery as to warrant a paper devoted to the geological facts connected therewith.
     Physiographic Features.-North of Omaha for a number of miles the topographic features are bold and abrupt for a prairie country due to the proximity of the Missouri River, the relief being 150 to 200 feet.
On all sides landslides are in evidence and must be reckoned with in all field work. Early in October Mr. Robert F. Gilder, of Omaha, opened a mound on Long's hill facing the Missouri River, ten miles north of Omaha or three miles north of Florence, Douglass County, Nebraska. From Florence north to Long's hill there is a continuous section along the roadside for about three miles and from the base of Long's hill to the summit, on which Gilder's mound is situated, there is an unbroken section, hence the geology of the place is well exposed, and being simple is easily interpreted. The public highway, which is about forty feet above the river level, is just upon the top of the Carboniferous, the dark carbonaceous shales of which constitute a distinct geological feature. Upon the shales there rests an average of ten to twenty feet of glacial drift containing occasional Sioux quartzite and granitic boulders. Upon the drift comes 150 feet of bright buff loess such as is conspicuous in and around Omaha and Council Bluffs.

     Long's hill stands 200 feet above the river level, and 150 feet above the valley out of which it rises. It is a hill of erosion, and no discoverable land slip has complicated its simple geology. On its summit is Gilder's mound, in the superficial layer of which were found mound-builder remains, and in the deeper layer eight skulls and many bones of a still more primitive type. The writer at once joined Mr. Gilder in a critical investigation of the place, continuing the work from time to time to December 2, 1906, with results leading to the conclusion that two of the skulls are mound builders', in all probability. These were found in the upper layer readily discernible as a mixture of black soil and light buff subsoil such as would result from digging and burying. This layer has a thickness of two and one half feet. Below it was an undisturbed layer of unmistakable loess, and in it numberless fragments of human bones and an occasional animal bone, loess shells and stray angular pebbles. In brief, the conclusion is that in the case of the upper bone layer there was burial, in the- lower, deposition. Those in the loess doubtless antedate the hill itself while those in the upper layer are subsequent to it. That archaic burial could have taken place in loess without detection is altogether improbable. Of necessity there would result a mixture of black with light soil and a breaking up of the lithologic structure. Where these bones occur the loess structure and color is perfectly preserved and it contains characteristic vertical lime-tubes, concretions and shells precisely as is customary. Out of the evidence at hand the writer concludes that bones of this layer were strictly synchronous with the loess formation in which they were found, in substantiation of which comes the fragmental nature of all of the bones, their water-worn condition, their range of distribution, and disassociation of parts.

     One would scarcely think of such conditions being possible in the case of human burial; besides it is improbable that a primitive people would dig graves to a depth of twelve feet. Should a people without tools and appliances perform such an improbable feat, would they bury water-worn fragments, would they scatter them so widely as not to exceed five or six pieces to the cubic yard? How could they replace the earth in the grave in such order and regularity that there would be perfect structure and gradation of color from soil to subsoil?
     Methods of Exploration.-Early in November the writer recognized that the bones in the loess were apparently fossil, and great care was exercised in all subsequent work. On extending the cross trenches which Mr. Gilder had dug, human bones scattered, water-worn, fragmentary and unrelated were found in natural, undisturbed loess at all levels down to six feet. The most interesting single bit found on this occasion was the left half of a frontal bone secured at a depth of four to five feet. Later, at a distance of five feet the other half was dug up, and the two parts fit together, completing an interesting low-browed frontal. A jaw, which was found in undisturbed loess at a depth of four feet, was that of a youth. The crowns of the teeth were scarcely worn, so old age can not be assigned as the reason for the absence of all teeth save molars Nos. 2 and 3 in the right ramus and No. 2 in the left. Just as the teeth of any water-soaked jaw drop out readily, so it seems to have been with this one. The inference is that they were lost in the process of deposition. A week later work was resumed, the writer being accompanied by Mr. Robert F. Gilder and Dr. George E. Condra, and the attempt was made to be severely critical and careful.
     All surface material was carefully removed and three wide shafts were sunk on the northern, eastern, and southern points of the mound. Each shovelful of earth was scrutinized, all bone fragments carefully saved and recorded. In all some twenty bits were found, as follows: a fragment from the base of a skull, fragments of ribs, limb bones, scapula and sacrum; a clavicle, calcaneum, three complete vertebroet, wo metapodes and a phalanx. Some of the bits mentioned were but slivers, other bits were two or three inches long. Some were badly etched by water, others gnawed by rodents. As each fragment was unearthed a block of the matrix was kept and as far as possible each fragment was preserved in position in the block.

     There were but twenty fragments in this lot, for while it is true that the shafts were sunk to a depth of eight feet, and while bone chips were found at all levels, they were widely scattered and few in number. Among the fragments may be mentioned five or six bits of skull, as many bits of rib, the angle of a jaw, metatarsal No. 3, and two phalanges, and with them bits of Anadonta, Succinea avara, and several angular pebbles. When work was resumed a few days later a circle thirty feet in diameter was described concentrically about the mound, which is about eighteen feet in diameter. The northeast quadrant of the circle was divided into sectors of twenty-two and a half degrees and lettered. This quadrant as a whole was excavated to an average depth of six feet its periphery to an average depth of eight to nine feet, and a shaft was sunk to a depth of twelve feet on the north edge.

Friday, October 31, 2014

Newark, Ohio Earthwork's Halloween Solar Alignment

Newark, Ohio Earthwork's Halloween Solar Alignment

Ancient Halloween Rituals at the Newark, Ohio Earthworks

      The oldest religious festival of what we call Halloween can be found within the solar alignments of several of the ancient earthworks in the Ohio Valley. Two earthworks (henges) located at Newark, Ohio and Anderson, Indiana are aligned to the May 1 sunrise and the October 31 sunset. May 1, is the festival of life, whereas October 31, is the festival for the dead.
    The ancient Irish called this day Samhain that was celebrated from sunset October 31st, to the sunset of November 1st. Samhain's definition according to Wikipedia, “was seen as a time when the "door" to the Other World opened enough for the souls of the dead, and other beings, to come into our world. Feasts were had, at which the souls of dead kin were beckoned to attend and a place set at the table for them. It has thus been likened to a festival of the dead. People also took steps to protect themselves from harmful spirits, which is thought to have led to the custom of guising. Divination was also done at Samhain.”

     The celebration of a festival for the dead is more appropriate to civilizations like the mound builders who worshiped their ancestors. Those buried in earthen mounds in the British Isles and North America were not seen as individuals, but a collective of the dead that could determine good or bad fortune for those who came to the mounds to pray. The priests would have been engaged in the art of divination to contact the spirits and the paranormal world during these festivals for the dead. Halloween was the time for the manifestation of all sorts of spirits, fairies, and ghosts, all of whom had liberty on that night." 

The largest henge in North America was constructed to align to the Samhain sunset on October 31, which was part of a larger ceremony to conjur and worship the dead. The Circle and Octagon earthwork is aligned to the maximum Northern Moonrise. The moon has also been associated with the spirits of the dead in the ancient world. The Moon was believed to be a place of resort to some of the disembodied spirits.

Monday, October 27, 2014

5 Ton Piece of Copper is Raised out of a Lake Superior Mine: Evidence of Nephilim Mining

5 Ton Piece of Copper is Raised out of a Lake Superior Mine: Evidence of Nephilim Mining

Bancroft's Native Races, Vol. IV 1882

5 Ton Piece of Copper being raised from a mine on Lake Superior.  They were not mining such large amounts of copper to make jewelry! 

The ancient miners have left numerous traces of their work in the region of Lake Superior. At one place a piece of pure copper weighing over five tons was found fifteen feet below the surface, under trees at least four hundred years old. It had been raised on skids, bore marks of fire, and some stone implements were scattered about. There is no evidence that the tribes found in possession of the country by the first French missionaries ever worked these mines, or had any tradition of a people that had worked them, although both they and their ancestors had copper knives hammered from lumps of the metal, which are very commonly found on the surface. All the traditions and Indian stories of 'mines' may most consistently be referred to these natural superficial deposits. The ancient mines were for the most part in the same localities where the best modern mines are worked. Most of them have left as traces only slight depressions in the surface, the finding of which is regarded by prospectors as a tolerably sure indication of a rich vein of copper. The cut represents a section of one of the veins of copper-bearing rock worked by the ancient miners. The mass of copper at a weighed about six tons. At the top a portion of the stone had been left across the vein as a support. Copper implements, including wedges used in mining as 'gads,' are found in and about the old mines; with hammers of stone, mostly grooved for withe handles. Some weigh from thirty to forty pounds and have two 784grooves; others again are not grooved at all. In one case remains of a handle of twisted cedar-roots were found, and much-worn wooden shovels often occur. There are no enclosures, mounds, or other traces of a permanent settlement of the Mound-builders in the mining region. It is probable that the miners came each summer from the south; in fact, it would have been impossible to work the mines in winter by their methods.

Sunday, October 26, 2014

Burial Mounds and Ancient Canals Described in Southern California

Burial Mounds and Ancient Canals Described in Southern California

Native Races, Vol. IV. 1882, Bancroft

In the plain at the mouth of the Saticoy River, twelve miles below San Buenaventura, and five or six miles from the sea, are reported two mounds, regular, rounded, and bare of trees. One of them is over a mile long and two hundred feet high, and the other about half as large. If the report of their existence 696is correct, there seems to be no evidence that they are of artificial formation, except their isolated position on the plain, and a native tradition that they are burial-places. One writer suggests that they are the graves of a people, or of their kings, whose cities are buried beneath the waters of the Santa Barbara Channel. The site of the cities presents some obstacles to exploration, and the details of their construction are not fully known. Twenty miles farther up the Saticoy is a group of small mounds, ten or twelve in number and five or six feet high. They "seem to have been water-worn or worked out by running water all around the mounds so as to isolate each one." Near these mounds, on the Cayetano rancho, is a field of some five hundred acres, divided by parallel ridges of earth, and having distinct traces of irrigating ditches, supplied by a canal which extends two or three miles up the Sespe arroyo. It is said that the present inhabitants of this region, both native and Spanish, have no knowledge of the origin of these agricultural works