Friday, August 22, 2014

Ancient Iroquois Remains with Maritime Archaic Skull Traits Are Uncovered in Montreal, Canada

Ancient Iroquois Remains with Maritime Archaic Skull Traits Are Uncovered in Montreal, Canada

This is a series of skulls associated with the Maritime Archaic 7000 B.C. - 2000 B.C.A sloping forehead, a prominent brow ridge and enhanced occipital region are characteristic of this ancient skull type.  The Maritime Archaic also were known for their large size with skeletons exceeding 7 foot, not uncommon. 

A New Hochelagan Burying-ground Discovered at Westmount on the Western Spur of Mount Royal, Montreal, July-September, 1898

Mr. Beauchamp, the New-York authority, writes concerning the Mohawks; "Burial customs varied greatly among the same people, but usually the knees are drawn up. The face might be turned either way in contiguous graves. I have seen many opened with no articles in them." By the kindness of Dr. Wyatt Johnston, Pathologist to the Provincial Board of Health, the three skeletons have been preserved and are now in the Chateau de Ramezay Historical Museum where they will doubtless be regarded with interest by scholars. The skulls have been fully identified as of the Indian type, and found to be those of two powerful males in the prime of life and one young woman. The skull in possession of Mr. Earl is doubtless of the same race. Some large stones were found placed above the bodies, and also a number of naturally flat stones which appear to have been used as scoops to excavate. The plateau where the remains were found is about half way up the side of the "Mountain" or hill, as it more properly is, the total height being only about 700 feet. The plateau slopes somewhat and looks towards the south-east, and being protected by the hill behind it from prevailing winds, and having a good light soil, constitutes a very favorable situation for the growth of the Indian crops of corn and beans. The Mountain being an isolated rise in the great plain of the St. Lawrence, the plateau was also most favorably ]placed for look-out and defence. A hundred yards or so to the west is a fine perennial spring, and a short distance further is another which has always been known as "the old Indian Well," having been a resort of Indians at a later period

A Brachycephalic Man

This skeleton is that of a large and powerfully built man, the bones being very heavy and strong with marked impressions and prominences for muscular attachment. The skeleton, with the exception of some of the small bones of the hands and feet is complete.

The skull is large and massive, and the lower jaw very strong and heavy. The teeth are well preserved but much ground down at the crown. The 0]superciliary ridges are very prominent. The fore head is narrow (102 c.m.) receding.

Judging from the size and strength of the bones and their impressions for muscular attachment, this man must have been very powerful and calculating from the length of the femur, at least six feet tall. With this skeleton we found a small humerus of some mammal possibly a squirrel.

The Tallest Man

This skeleton is also that of a large powerfully built man, even taller man the last. The skull is larger, though not quite so massive. It is longer and narrower and dolicephalus, the occipital region very prominent. The height index is low (70.5).

The face is broad as compared with the length 124-112 and the cheek bones are prominent, lower jaw is heavy and strong.

The bones of this skeleton are well preserved and it is almost entire, there being only a few of the bones of the hands and feet missing. The pelvis is masculine. The bones are long, large and heavy with marked impressions and processes.

The femur measures 17-7/8 inches so that this man must have been six feet or more and of muscular frame.

Among the bones of No III skeleton were 2 small rib bones of a bird.

Judging from the general conformation of the three skulls, it would appear that No. I, was that of the most intelligent person of the three and No. III of the least No. II being intermediate.

It is difficult to estimate the height of No. I as the femur is so decayed at both ends, but allowing for this, the height would not be more than 5 feet and probably less than that. The skeletons undoubtedly belong to the Mongoloid type and are distinctive of the North Am